Desinfo ja infomanipulatsioonid | Eesti Rahvusraamatukogu

Desinfo ja infomanipulatsioonid

Rahvusraamatukogu kogub desinformatsiooni ja infomanipulatsioonide alast kirjandust. Samuti vahendame Eesti teadlaste ja ekspertide poolt läbi viidud uuringuid ja analüüse. Teemad, mille kohta siit lehelt materjali võib leida, on: desinformatsioon, valeinfo, väärinfo, infomanipulatsioonid, inforünnakud, infooperatsioonid, infosõjad, propaganda, valeuudised, psühholoogiline sõda. Ettepanekud on teretulnud aadressil

Liitu ka desinfo ja infomanipulatsioonide uudiskirjaga!




Active measures : the secret history of disinformation and political warfare 
Thomas Rid; London : Profile Books (2020)

Hostile social manipulation : present realities and emerging trends 
Michael J. Mazarr ... [et al.]; Santa Monica, Calif. : RAND Corporation (2019) 

Hybrid conflicts and information warfare : new labels, old politics 
edited by Ofer Fridman, Vitaly Kabernik, James C. Pearce; Boulder, Colorado ; London : Lynne Rienner Publishers (2019) 

Information wars : how we lost the global battle against disinformation & what we can do about it 
Richard Stengel; New York : Grove Press (2019, 2020) 

Psychological warfare and deception : what you need to know about human behavior, dark psychology, propaganda, negotiation, manipulation, and persuasion 
Neil Morton; [USA] : Independently Published (2020) 

The lands in between : Russia vs. the West and the new politics of hybrid war 
Mitchell A. Orenstein; New York, NY : Oxford University Press (2019) 



Challenging online propaganda and disinformation in the 21st century
Miloš Gregor, Petra Mlejnková; Cham : Palgrave Macmillan, 2021

Countering online propaganda and extremism : the dark side of digital diplomacy 
edited by Corneliu Bjola and James Pamment; London ; New York : Routledge (2019)

Dark Persuasion: A History of Brainwashing from Pavlov to Social Media (saabub RaRasse 2021 lõpuks) 
Joel E. Dimsdale; Yale University Press (2021)

Extremist propaganda in social media : a threat to homeland security 
Michael Erbschloe; Boca Raton, FL : CRC Press (2019) 

Fact over fake : a critical thinker's guide to media bias and political propaganda 
Richard Paul and Linda Elder; Lanham [etc.] : Rowman & Littlefield (2020)

Network propaganda : manipulation, disinformation, and radicalization in American politics
Yochai Benkler, Robert Faris, Hal Roberts; New York : Oxford University Press (2018)

Propaganda, disinformation and you
Marie D. Jones; Canton, MI : Visible Ink Press, 2021

Propaganda in the information age : still manufacturing consent 
edited by Alan MacLeod; London ; New York, NY : Routledge (2019) 

The SAGE handbook of propaganda 
edited by Paul Baines, Nicholas O'Shaughnessy and Nancy Snow; London [etc.] : SAGE Publications (2020) 

Understanding Media Propaganda in the 21st Century: Manufacturing Consent Revisited and Revised Unabridged edition   (saabub RaRasse 2021 lõpuks)
Simon Foley; Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2021

Weaponized words : the strategic role of persuasion in violent radicalization and counter-persuasion 
Kurt Braddock; New York : Cambridge University Press (2020) 



Deepfakes : the coming infocalypse 
Nina Schick; New York ; Boston : Twelve (2020) 

Detecting fake news on social media 
Kai Shu and Huan Liu; [San Rafael] : Morgan & Claypool Publishers (2019) 

Digital afterlife : death matters in a digital age 
edited by Maggi Savin-Baden, Victoria Mason-Robbie;  Boca Raton, FL : CRC Press, [2020] 

Disinformation and manipulation in digital media : information pathologies / Eileen Culloty and Jane Suiter

Disinformation, misinformation, and fake news in social media : emerging research challenges and opportunities 
Kai Shu ... [et al.], editors; Cham, Switzerland : Springer, [2020]

Journalism Ethics at the Crossroads: Democracy, Fake News, and the News Crisis (saabub RaRasse 2021 lõpuks)
Roger Patching (Bond University, Australia), Martin Hirst; Routledge, 2021

Mass Communication: Digital Media Literacy and Culture (saabub RaRasse 2021 lõpuks)
Edited by Liam Price; States Academic Press, 2021

Routledge Companion to Media Education, Copyright, and Fair Use (saabub RaRasse 2021 lõpuks)
Edited by Renee Hobbs; Taylor & Francis Ltd

Social engineering : the science of human hacking 
Christopher Hadnagy; Indianapolis, IN : Wiley (2018) 

The hype machine : how social media disrupts our elections, our economy, and our health--and how we must adapt 
Sinan Aral;     New York : Currency, [2020]

#HashtagActivism: Networks of Race and Gender Justice 
Sarah J. Jackson, Moya Bailey, Brooke Foucault Welles; MIT Press Ltd, United States (2020) 



America's information wars : the untold story of information systems in America's conflicts and politics from World War II to the internet age 
Colin B. Burke; Lanham [etc.] : Rowman&Littlefield, 2018

Defending democracies : combating foreign election interference in a digital age / edited by Duncan B. Hollis, Jens David Ohlin

Democracy and fake news : information manipulation and post-truth politics
edited by Serena Giusti and Elisa Piras; London ; New York, NY : Routledge, 2021

Destructive storytelling : disinformation and the Eurosceptic myth that shaped brexit 
Imke Henkel; Cham : Palgrave Macmillan, 2021

Populist Disinformation in Fragmented Information Settings: Understanding the Nature and Persuasiveness of Populist and Post-factual Communication  (saabub RaRasse 2021 lõpuks)
Michael Hameleers; Routledge, 2021

The truth society : science, disinformation, and politics in Berlusconi's Italy
Noelle Molé Liston; Ithaca [New York] : Cornell University Press, 2020 

The Routledge companion to media disinformation and populism
edited by Howard Tumber and Silvio Waisbord; London ; New York : Routledge, 2021



Conspiracy theories and the Nordic countries
Anastasiya Astapova ... [et al.]; London ; New York : Routledge, 2021

Deep Fakes, Fake News, and Misinformation in Online Teaching and Learning Technologies (saabub RaRasse 2021 lõpuks)
Edited by Rebecca J. Blankenship; Business Science Reference, 2021

Developing Digital Detectives: Essential Lessons for Discerning Fact from Fiction in the Fake News Era  (saabub RaRasse 2021 lõpuks)
Jennifer LaGarde, Darren Hudgins; International Society for Technology in Education, 2021

Distinguishing Fact from Opinion  (saabub RaRasse 2021 lõpuks)
Marne Ventura; Brightpoint Press, 2021

EU research and innovation projects in artificial intelligence: disinformation 
European Commission 

How Algorithms Create and Prevent Fake News: Exploring the Impacts of Social Media, Deepfakes, GPT-3, and More (saabub RaRasse 2021 lõpuks)
Noah Giansiracusa; APress, 2021

Identifying Fake News  (saabub RaRasse 2021 lõpuks)
R L Van; Brightpoint Press, 2021

Identifying Media Bias (saabub RaRasse 2021 lõpuks)
Tammy Gagne; Brightpoint Press, 2021

NATO - Inoculation Theory and Misinformation (2021) 

Reality Game: How the next wave of technology will break the truth - and what we can do about it (saabub RaRasse 2021 lõpuks)
Samuel Woolley; Endeavour, 2020

Science Denial: Why It Happens and What to Do About It  (saabub RaRasse 2021 lõpuks)
Gale Sinatra (Stephen H. Crocker Professor of Education and Psychology, Rossier School of Education, University of Southern California), Barbara Hofer (Professor of Psychology Emerita, Middlebury College); Oxford University Press Inc, 2021

Survival Nexus: Science, Technology, and World Affairs (saabub RaRasse 2021 lõpuks)
Charles Weiss (Georgetown University); Oxford University Press, USA, 2021

UNESCO - Disinformation during the pandemic and Latin America's regulatory response (2021) 

UNESCO - Media and information literate citizens: think critically, click wisely! (2021)

UNESCO - Misinformation, Disinformation, Malinformation: Causes, Trends, and Their Influence on Democracy (2020)

UNESCO - Truth vs misinformation: the collective push back: South Asia press freedom report 2018-19 (2019)

Valede paljastamise käsiraamat / Johanna Vehkoo

What Do We Know and What Should We Do About Fake News?  (saabub RaRasse 2021 lõpuks)
Nick Anstead; SAGE Publications Ltd, 2021

Vaata veel raamatuid


Antagonising fact-checkers: the misappropriation of fact-checking to polarise the Spanish informational landscape

Artificial Intelligence and Autonomy in Russia

Atlantic Council - Chinese Discourse Power (2020) 

Atlantic Council - post mortem - The Macron Leaks Operation (2019) 

Atlantic Council - report - Democratic Defense Against Disinformation (2018) 

Avaaz - report - Yellow Vests Flooded by Fake News (2019) 

Aquarium Leaks. Inside the GRU’s Psychological Warfare Program. Michael Weiss. Free Russia Foundation, 2020. 

Bakamo - Patterns of Disinformation in the 2017 FR Presidential Election (2017) 

Balancing Act: Countering Digital Disinformation while respecting Freedom of Expression 

Brookings - The Breakout Scale, Measuring the Impact of Influence Operations (2020) 

Canadian Security Intelligence Service - Who Said What, The Security Challenges of Modern Disinformation (2018) 

CAPS & IRSEM - report - Information Manipulation (2018) 

Cardiff University - The Internet Research Agency In Europe 2014-2016 (2019) 

Carnegie - The EU's Role in Fighting Disinformation, Crafting a Disinformation Framework #2 (Sep 2020) 

Carnegie - The EU's Role in Fighting Disinformation, Taking Back the initiative #1 (2020) 

Carter-Ruck - report - Fake News, Authentic Views (2018) 

CCDH - The Disinformation Dozen (2021) 

CEPA - report - Winning the Information War (2016) 

Chatham House - Online Disinformation and Political Discourse - Applying A Human Rights Framework (2019) 

CHEQ - The Economic Cost of Fake News on the Internet (2019) 

Citizen Lab - Annotated Disinformation Bibliography (2019) 

CNA - Exploring the Utility of Memes for U.S. Government Influence Campaigns (2018) 

COE - Council of Europe's responses to disinformation (2021) 

COE - Dealing with propaganda, misinformation and fake news

Combatting COVID19 disinformation on online platforms 

Council of Europe - report - Information Disorder (2017) 

CSIS - Beyond the Ballot, How the Kremlin Works to Undermind the US Justice System (2019) 

Data & Society

Dawson et al - How RU's IRA Built Its Disinformation Campaign (2019) 

Deeptrace - the State of Deepfakes (2019) 

Deafening Whispers: China’s Information Operation and Taiwan’s 2020 Election

Demokraatia, alternatiivne reaalsus ja kerksus Eestis. Dimitri Teperik 

Disinformation in the Western Balkans 

Disinformation Overdose: A study of the Crisis of Trust among Vaccine Sceptics and Anti-Vaxxers

Disinformation Resilience in CEE (2018) 

DRF - Full Report - Sifting truth from lies in the digital age of #FakeNews (2020) 

DRI - Deepfakes, A New Disinformation Threat (2020) 

DRI - Deepfakes, How Prepared Are We (2020) 

DRI - Tackling Disinformation and Online Hate Speech - EU and Member State approaches, so far (2020) 

DRI - The EU Framework Against Disinformation (2019)

East Center - case study - Fundamental Shifts in Anti-Belarusian Disinformation and Propaganda ( 2019) 

EC's HLEG - report - A multi dimensional approach to disinformation (2018) 

EC's JRC - report - The digital transformatsion of news media and the rise of disinfo and fake news (2018) 

Eesti rahvusvahelises julgeolekukeskkonnas 2021. Välisluureamet.

EPC - Disinformation and democracy (2019) 

EPDE - Russian Interference, and Where to Find It (2019) 

EPRS STOA - Automated tackling of disinformation (2019) 

EPRS STOA - Regulating disinformation with artificial intelligence (2019) 

European Commission - Understanding Citizens' Vulnerabilities to Disinformation (2019) 

European Values & KAS - Handbook on Countering Russian and Chinese Interference in Europe (2019) 

European Values - report - Overview of countermeasures by the EU28 to the Kremlinļs subversion operations (2017) 

FAKE NEWS: ДЕЗИНФОРМАЦИЯ В МЕДИА Пособие для студентов направлений журналистики и массовых коммуникаций 

FEPS - Resisting state propaganda in the new information environment (2016) 

First Draft - Under the surface, Covid-19 vaccine narratives, misinformation and data deficits on social media (2020) 

Forum on Information & Democracy - WG in Infodemics - Policy Framework (2020) 

FPRI - e-notes - Countering Russian Disinformation (2015) 

FPRI - e-notes - Russian Propaganda, Disinformation, and Estonia's Experience (2015) 

Free Russia Foundation - The Kremlin's Malign Influence Quarterly #1 

Freedom House - Beijing's Global Megaphone, The Expansion of Chinese Communist Party Media Influence since 2017 (2020) 

Full Fact - consultation document - A Framework for Information Incidents (2021) 

Full Fact - report - Fighting the causes and consequences of bad information (2020) 

Full Fact, Africa Check & Chequeado - Who is most likely to believe and to share misinformation (Feb 2020) 

GDI - Cutting the Funding of Disinformation (2019) 

GDI - Rating Disinformation Risk, The GDI Methodology (2019) 

George Washington University - Lessons from the Information War, Applying Effective Tech Solutions to the Problem of Online Disinfo and Propaganda (2019) 

GMF - Avoiding the Band-Aid Effect in Institutional Responses to Disinformation and Hybrid Threats (2019) 

Governance responses to disinformation 

Graphika - From Russia with Blogs (2020) 

Graphika - Iran's Broadcaster, Inauthentic Behavious (2020) 

Graphika - Operation Naval Gazing - Facebook Takes Down Inauthentic Chinese Network (2020) 

GWU - Persuade or Perish, Addressing Gaps in the U.S. Posture to Confront Propaganda and Disinformation Threats (2020) 

Harvard - Mitigating Medical Misinformation (2021) 

HCSS - report - Inside the Kremlin House of Mirrors (2017) 

Hewlett Foundation - Social Media, Political Polarization, and Political Disinformation - A Review of the Scientific Literature (2018) 

Hiina mõjutustegevus Eestis. Frank Jüris 

House of Commons - final report - Disinformation and fake news (2019) 

House of Commons - interim report - Disinformation and fake news (2018) 

House of Commons - interim report - Disinformation and fake news, government response (Oct 2018) 

ICFJ-UNESCO Study: Online Violence, Fueled by Disinformation and Political Attacks, Deeply Harms Women Journalists 

ifa - case studies of Serbia and Estonia - Understanding Russian Communication Strategy (2018) 

IFES - working paper - Social Media, Disinformation and Electoral Integrity (2019) 

IMR - case study - Hybrid Analytica Pro-Kremlin Expert Propaganda (2018) 

Infodemic - COVID-19 in Europe - A Visual Analysis of Disinformation (2020) 

Insikt Group - Intent to Infekt (2020) 

Institute of Modern Russia & The Interpreter - special report - The Menace of Unreality (2014) 

Investigating Russia's role and the Kremlin's interference in the 2019 EP elections (2019) 

ISD & LSE - Smearing Sweden (2018) 

ISD - interim briefing paper - 2019 EU Elections - Information Operations Analysis (2019) 

KAS - Propaganda and Disinformation in the Western Balkans (2018) 

Knight Foundation - Disinformation, 'Fake News' and Influence Campaigns on Twitter (2018) 

Konspirationsteorier och covid-19: mekanismerna bakom en snabbväxande samhällsutmaning. Myndigheten för samhällsskydd och beredskap (MSB)

Legatum Institute - essays - Information at War (2015) 

Legatum Institute - The New Authoritarians, Ruling Through Disinformation (2015) 

LSE - Soviet Subversion and Propaganda, How the West Fought Against it (2017) 

Managing the COVID-19 infodemic: Promoting healthy behaviours and mitigating the harm from misinformation and disinformation 
Joint statement by WHO, UN, UNICEF, UNDP, UNESCO, UNAIDS, ITU, UN Global Pulse, and IFRC 

Mandiant - Ghostwriter Influence Campaign (2020) 

Media Development Foundation - report - Anti Western Propaganda in 2017 

Mediawell - How Misinformation Spreads (2020) 

Mitigating Medical Misinformation: A Whole-of-Society Approach to Countering Spam, Scams, and Hoaxes.
Joan Donovan, Brian Friedberg, Gabrielle Lim, Nicole Leaver, Jennifer Nilsen ja Emily Dreyfuss. Harvard Kennedy School, 2021. 

MSB + Lund - research report - Countering Information Influence Activities 

NATO - NATO’s approach to countering disinformation: a focus on COVID-19

NATO - Handbook of Russian Information Warfare (2015) 

NATO StratCom CoE -  The Next Phase of Russian Information Warfare (2016) 

NATO StratCom CoE - Fake News, A Roadmap (2018) 

NATO StratCom CoE - Manipulation Ecosystem of Social Messaging Platforms (2020) 

NATO StratCom CoE - Russia's Footprint in the Nordic-Baltic Information Environment 2019-2020 

NED - Demand for Deceit, How the Way We Think Drives Disinformation (2020) 

New Knowledge - The Tactics & Tropes of the Internet Research Agency (2018) 

NYU - Disinformation and the 2020 Election (2019) 

OECD - How open government principles can inform policy options. Governance responses to disinformation

OECD - Combating Misinformation: An Ecosystem in Co-creation (2018)

OECD - Role of centres of government and ministries of health in countering misinformation and disinformation (2021) 

Open Technology Institute. How Internet Platforms Are Combating Disinformation and Misinformation in the Age of COVID-19 

OSW - Between Overt Disinformation and Covert Practice, The Russian Special Services' Game (Mar 2019) 

OSW - The Devil is in the Details, Information Warfare in the Light of RUs Military Doctrine (May 2015) 

Oxford Internet Institute - 2019 Global Inventory of Organised Social Media Manipulation 

Oxford Internet Institute - 2020 Global Inventory of Organized Social Media Manipulation 

Oxford Internet Institute - Challenging Truth and Trust (2018) 

Oxford Internet Institute - executive summary - Computational Propaganda Worldwide (2017) 

Oxford Internet Institute - The IRA, Social Media and Political Polarization in the US, 2012-2018 (Dec 2018) 

Oxford Internet Institute - working paper - Troops, Trolls and Troublemakers (2017) 

OxTEC - Anti-Disinformation Initiatives (2019) 

Park Advisors - Weapons of Mass Distraction, Foreign State-Sponsored Disinformation in the Digital Age (2019) 

PEN America - Faking-News (2017) 

Princeton - Defending the Vote, Estonia Creates a Network to Combat Disinformation, 2016-2020 

RAND - Countering Russian Social Media Influence (2018) 

RAND - Hostile Social Manipulation (2019) 

RAND - Russian Social Media Influence (2018) 

Recorded Future - The Price of Influence, Disinformation in the Private Sector (2019) 

Report: The Bronze Soldier Crises of 2007. Ivo Juurvee, Mariita Mattiisen. Rahvusvaheline Kaitseuuringute keskus, 2020. 

Report of the Select Committee on Intelligence US Senate on RU Active Measures Campaigns Report - Volume 4 (2020) 

Reuters Institute - factsheet - Audience perspective on fake news (2017) 

SIO - Telling China's Story, The Chinese Communist Party's Campaign to Shape Global Narratives 2020) 

Stop the virus of disinformation 

The Alan Turing Institute - Tackling threats to informed decision-making in democratic societies (2020) 

The COVID States Project #57: Social media news consumption and COVID-19 vaccination rates 
Katherine Ognyanova, David Lazer, Matthew Baum, James Druckman, Jon Green, Roy H. Perlis, Mauricio Santillana, Matthew D Simonson, Jennifer Lin, Ata Uslu 
Northeastern University, Harvard University, Rutgers University, and Northwestern University  
USA, July 2021 

The COVID States Project #60: COVID-19 vaccine misinformation: From uncertainty to resistance 
Katherine Ognyanova, David Lazer, Matthew Baum, James Druckman, Jon Green, Roy H. Perlis, Mauricio Santillana, Matthew D Simonson, Jennifer Lin, Ata Uslu 
Northeastern University, Harvard University, Rutgers University, and Northwestern University  
USA, August 2021 

The echo chamber is overstated: the moderating effect of political interest and diverse media. Elizabeth Dubois & Grant Blank, 2018

UK Parliament - House of Lords - Digital Technology and the Resurrection of Trust (2020) 

UN - Disinformation and freedom of opinion and expression (2021) 

UN - Officials Outline United Nations Fight against Disinformation (2021) 

UN - 5 ways the UN is fighting ‘infodemic’ of misinformation

UNESCO - COVID-19 education response webinar, The COVID-19 pandemic of disinformation and hate speech: how can education and digital citizenship help, syntesis report

UNESCO - Disinfodemic: deciphering COVID-19 disinformation (2020)

UNESCO - Elections and media in digital times; preview (2019)

UNESCO - Journalism, press freedom and COVID-19 (2020)

UNESCO raport: Disinfodemic: Deciphering COVID-19 disinformation 

UNICEF - Digital misinformation / disinformation and children 

US Senate Committee on Foreign Relations - Putin's Assymmetric Assault on Democracy in Russia and Europe (2018) 

US Senate Select Committee on Intelligence - Active Measures Campaigns and Interference in the 2016 US Election, vol 3. 

US Senate Select Committee on Intelligence - Russian Active Measures Campaigns and Interference in the 2016 US Election, vol 1 (2019) 

US Senate Select Committee on Intelligence - Russian Active Measures Campaigns and Interference in the 2016 US Election, vol 2 (2019) 

USAID - Disinformation Primer (2021) 

Veebidebatt. Could fake news ever lead to war? Osaleb ka eestlane Maarja Kask 

WHO - Coronavirus Disinformation to Defund the World Health Organization

WHO - Fighting misinformation in the time of COVID-19, one click at a time

WHO - Immunizing the public against misinformation 

Wilcon Center - Magic Weapons, China's political influence activities under Xi Jinping (2017) 

World Bank - The Learning Challenge in the 21st Century (2020)

YouTube Regrets: A crowdsourced investigation into YouTube's recommendation algorithm


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Janek Haar. Eesti- ja venekeelsete ajateenijate meediatarbimise seos väärinfo tuvastamisega. [Lõputöö]. Tartu Ülikool, 2021

Jesper Roon. Ajateenistusse astujate arusaamad infomõjutusest. [Bakalaureusetöö]. Tartu Ülikool, 2021

Johannes Voltri. Comparison of governmental approaches to counter Russian information influence in the Baltic states. [Magistritöö]. Tartu Ülikool, 2021

Kadri Paas. Eesti riikliku julgeoleku kommunikatsiooni võimalused vaenulike inforünnakute mõju leevendamiseks infosõjas. [Magistritöö]. Sisekaitseakadeemia, 2021

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Marek Miil. Nõukogude propagandasüsteemi toimimine ajakirjanduse argipraktikate kaudu. [Doktoritöö]. Tartu Ülikool, 2014

Mark Riisik. Foreign electoral interference: the case of upcoming elections in Estonia (kättesaadav TalTechi arvutivõrgus). [Magistritöö]. Tallinna Tehnikaülikool, 2020 

Mihhail Šelpakov. Venemaa tänapäevane internetipõhine infomõjutustegevus kui eestivenelaste radikaliseerumise võimalik tegur.  [Magistritöö]. Sisekaitsekakadeemia, 2021

Niall Gray. Kremlin Calling?: An investigation into the geopolitical narratives of selected European radical right parties regarding Russia. [Magistritöö]. Tartu Ülikool, 2020

Taavi Narits. Psühholoogiline kaitse Eesti julgeolekupoliitika kujundajate käsitluses. [Magistritöö]. Sisekaitseakadeemia, 2015 

Uku Arold. Põhjala ja Balti riikide psühholoogilise kaitse süsteemide kontseptuaalsed ja praktilised alused.  [Magistritöö]. Sisekaitseakadeemia, 2021

Wasin Punthong.  A poststructuralist approach to strategic culture: Estonia's strategic response to Russia's hybrid threat. [Magistritöö].  Tartu Ülikool & University College London, 2018


Anna Kobernjuk, Agnes KasperNormativity in the EU’s Approach towards DisinformationTalTech journal of European studies, ISSN 2674-4600 (2021) mai, lk. 170-202

ASPI - Trigger warning, The CCPļs coordinated information effort to discredit the BBC (2021) 

Computers in Human Behavior: Would you notice if fake news changed your behavior? An experiment on the unconscious effects of disinformation 
Volume 116, March 2021, 106633 
European School of Political and Social Sciences, Lille Catholic University, France 

Diomma Dramé. The health crisis: Fertile ground for disinformation Source. -  The UNESCO Courier, Volume 2020, Issue 3, Jul 2020, p. 24 – 26 

Fake news, disinformation and the democratic state 
Julian Richardsc 
La Revista Icono 14, 2021-01-01, Vol.19 (1) 

Ivo Juurvee, Uku Arold. Psychological Defence and Cyber Security: Two Integral Parts of Estonia’s Comprehensive Approach for Countering Hybrid Threats. Icono 14, 19(1), 70-94. 

Identity, stability, Hybrid Threats and Disinformation 
Freedman, Jane ; Hoogensen Gjørv, Gunhild ; Razakamaharavo, Velomahanina 
La Revista Icono 14, 2021, Vol.19 (1), p.38-68 

Misinformation, disinformation, and fake news: Cyber risks to business 
Pythagoras N.Petratos 
Business Horizons / Volume 64, Issue 6, November–December 2021, Pages 763-774 

OECD - Suarez-Alvarez, J. (2021), "Are 15-year-olds prepared to deal with fake news and misinformation?", PISA in Focus, No. 113

OECD - Mahmud, Erina and Nicholas Wilkinson (2020), “Community engagement to counter misinformation in Rohingya refugee camps

OSCE - Disinformation in International Relations: How Important Is It? Security and Human Rights Volume 29: Issue 1-4.

Russian Information Operations in Estonia and Latvia: How the AABS Dissertation Grant Advanced my PhD Project

Sten Hansson, Kati Orru, Sten Torpan, Asta Bäck, Austeja Kazemekaityte, Sunniva Frislid Meyer, Johanna Ludvigsen, Lucia Savadori, Alessandro Galvagni & Ala Pigrée (2021) COVID-19 information disorder: six types of harmful information during the pandemic in Europe, Journal of Risk Research 

Sten Hansson, Kati Orru, Andra Siibak, Asta Bäck, Marco Krüger, Friedrich Gabel, Claudia Morsut (2020) Communication-related vulnerability to disasters: A heuristic framework, International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction. 

Sõjateadlane 8 /2018 – Zapad 2017 infosõja vaatepunktist 
Toimetajad: Andreas Ventsel, Vladimis Sazonov ja Andres Saumets 

UNESCO - Growing up in the age of fake news 
The UNESCO Courier, Volume 2021, Issue 2. 

UNESCO - The health crisis: Fertile ground for disinformation / The UNESCO Courier, Volume 2020, Issue 3.

Visual Mis- and Disinformation, Social Media, and Democracy 
Dan, V ; Paris, B ; Donovan, J ; Hameleers, M ; Roozenbeek, J ; van der Linden, S ; von Sikorski, C 
Journalism & mass communication quarterly, 2021-09, Vol.98 (3), p.641-664 

What Is in Fake Stories 
Tandoc, Edson C., Jr ; Thomas, Ryan J ; Bishop, Lauren 
Media and communication (Lisboa), 2021-02-01, Vol.9 (1S1), p.110 

Who Is Responsible for Disinformation? European Approaches to Social Platforms’ Accountability in the Post-Truth Era 
De Blasio, Emiliana ; Selva, Donatella 
The American behavioral scientist (Beverly Hills), 2021-05, Vol.65 (6), p.825-846 

Фабрики мнений: тролли и телепропагандисты в одной упряжке на борьбе 
с массовым сознанием. Ч. 1

Фабрики мнений: тролли и телепропагандисты в одной упряжке на борьбе 
с массовым сознанием.
  Ч. 2 

Правда фейка и фейк правды как новые символы нашей цивилизации. Ч. 1 

Правда фейка и фейк правды как новые символы нашей цивилизации. Ч. 2 

Пропаганда как вечно молодое искусство управления чужими мозгами. Часть 1 

Пропаганда как вечно молодое искусство управления чужими мозгами. Часть 2 

Пропаганда + информация = власть. Ч. 1 

Пропаганда + информация = власть. Ч. 2