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Maps of 17th century Livonia

LA LIVONIE DUCHÉ divisée en ses Princip les Parties ESTEN, et LETTEN & c.; Avecq Privilege pour Vingt Ans / par le Sr. Sanson d’Abb éville . – [Ca 1:1 000 000]. – Paris : Pierre Mariette ; Sanson d’Abb éville, 1663 [published after 1676]. – Copper engraving ; 52 x 40 cm. – (Cartes générales de la geographie ancienne et nouvelle, ou les empires, monarchies, royaumes, estats, republiques, et peuples, tant anciens que nouveaux de toutes les parties du monde sont exactement remarques & distingus ; 47) .


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Original in the National Library Cartography Collection

This map by a French cartographer, Nicolas Sanson d’Abb é ville, has been reproduced from the atlas, Cartes Générales de la Geographie Ancienne et Nouvelle.

The Sansons was a well-known 17 th century family of French cartographers. The founder of their map shop was Nicolas (1600–1667). Their first atlas which included 100 maps was published in 1654, and the second, Cartes Générales de Toutes les Parties du Monde, in 1658. However, some of the maps published there already date from 1627. Cartes Générales de Toutes les Parties du Monde was the first atlas which exclusively included maps by Frenchmen. As Nicolas Sanson was strongly influenced by the works of other cartographers, there are many Dutch-language place names on his maps. The Sansons’ maps (approximately 300 in total) were also published in several other atlases.

In the beginning, the Sansons collaborated with a publisher, Melchior Tavernier; in 1648 they made a deal with the successor of Tavernier, Pierre Mariette (born in 1600), who was first and foremost an art dealer and a printer.


NOVA TOTIUS LIVONIÆ accurata Descriptio . – [Ca 1:1 500 000]. – Amsterdam : Joan Janssonius, 1642. – Copper engraving ; 50 x 37 cm. – (Jan Jansson / Nouveau theatre du monde ou nouvel atlas / 1 ; 31).


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Original in the National Library Cartography Collection

Jan (Joan) Jansson(ius) (1594–1664) was among the most eminent publishers of maps of the period who predominantly published the works of other cartographers. Being the son in law of Jodocus Hondius (1563–1611), another distinguished engraver and publisher of maps, he became the owner of the Hondiuses’ firm and carried on their work. Hondius had in turn bought the plates and publishing rights of maps from the successors of Gerardus Mercator in 1604.

Appendix or Novus Atlas, the source of the present map, was first published joinly by Henricus Hondius and Jan Jansson in 1638.

LIVONIA vulgo Lyefland . – [Ca 1:1 700 000]. – Amsterdam : Joan Blaeu, 1662. – Copper engraving ; 48 x 37 cm. – (Joan Blaeu. Atlas maior sive cosmographia Blaeuiana / 2 ; 10).


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Original in the National Library Cartography Collection

The map by Willem Janszoon Blaeu has been reproduced from Atlas Maior Sive Cosmographia Blaeuiana.

The Blaeus is the most eminent Dutch family of cartographers who produced maps almost throughout the 17 th century. Willem Janszoon Blaeu (Blauw, Blaeuw; 1571–1638) was a pupil of a famous Danish astronomer, Tycho Brache (1546–1601). His initial works were published under the name Guilielmus Janssonius (Willem Janszoon). In 1619 he added Blaeu to his name in order to avoid associating himself with another cartographer, Jan Janssoniga, and his following works were published under the name of Willem Jansz. Blaeu. The Blaeus published their atlas, Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, Sive Atlas Novus (shortly called Atlas Maior), for the first time in 1635 in two volumes. In 1646–1655 it was published in six volumes and in 1664–1665 in twelve volumes under the title Geographia Blaviana.

The best engravers, illustrators and printers of that time worked at the Blaeus’ map shop which ensured the exactness, artistic workmanship and fine appearance of their atlases and maps.

Their map of Livonia based on the work of Anders Bure, was completed in 1642. It was later used by Matthew Merian, Frederik de Wit, Jan Jansson and others.

La Livonie avec les frontieres de Courlande et de Finlande / Dressé sur les meilleures Cartes levées sur les Lieux, et tout nouvellement rendue publique par Pierre van der AaAvec Privilege. [Ca 1:2 200 000]. – Leide //Leiden// : Pierre van der Aa, [ca1674 1729 ]. – 1 map : copper engraving ; 35 x 28 cm.


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Original in the National Library Cartography Collection

A map publisher from Leiden, Pieter van der Aa (16591733), published several atlases. In 1729 he issued Galerie Agréable du monde, the source of the present map.


Livoniæ et Curlandiæ Tabula / per C. Weigelium. – [Ca 1:1 400 000]. – Norimbergæ //Nürnberg//, [ca1698 1726 ]. 1 map : copper engraving ; 38 x 32 cm.


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Original in the National Library Cartography Collection

An engraver of maps Christoph Weigel (1654 – 1726) moved to Nürnbergi in 1698 and published, together with Johann D. Köhler, several atlases (Atlas scholasticus et itinerarius; Bequemer Schul- und Reisen-Atlas 1724; Atlas manualis scholasticus 1712; Orbis antiquus 1720), the sources of the present map.


Tabula Ducatuum Livoni Æ et Curlandi Æ / recentior incisa editaque per Gerardum Valck. – [Ca 1:910 000]. – [Amsterdam : Gerardus Valck, ca1673-1686]. – Copper engraving ; 57 x 48 cm.


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Original in the National Library Cartography Collection

The present map has been published in several atlases: Nicolas Visscher’s Atlas minor; Homann’s Atlas geographicus maior; Atlas selectus; Nova totius geographica telluris projectio.

Its drawer Gerard Val(c)k (1650 – 1726) was an engraver and publisher of maps from Amsterdam, who in 1683 bought, together with Pieter Schenk, Joan Blaeu’s shop and publishing right of his atlases, and established a separate enterpise in 1700.


Livonia : Cum Privilegio / Per Gerardum Mercatorem .[Ca 1:1 700 000]. – Amstelodami // Amsterdam : Henricus Hondius, 1627 [published in 1634]. – Copper engraving ; 35 x 46 cm. – (Gerhardi Mercatoris et J. Hondii. Atlas. Ofte Afbeeldinghe vande gantsche Weerldt ; 23).


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Original in the National Library Cartography Collection

The map of Livonia by Gerardus Mercator was for the first time published after his death in his Atlas. Although this map and Johann Portantius’s map of Livonia published in 1573 have similar content, the Mercator’s map is more exact in details. The Mercator’s map of Livonia was published in several atlases by Jodocus Hondius in Amsterdam after 1604.

The present map is a reproduction from the Henricus Hondius’s ja Jan Jansson’s Flemish-language Atlas published in Amsterdam 1634. On the turn of the map there is a text Beschryvinghe van Lyflandt (pp. 49–50).

Gerardus Mercator (in the Flemish tradition, Gerard Kremer; 1512–1594) was born as a son of an handicrafter in the town of Rupelmonde near Antwerp. In 1530 he began his studies at the University of Leuven, one of the major contemporary centres of science and education in the Netherlands, in the faculty of the so-called seven liberal arts . In Leuven he made friends with Gemma Frisius, a professor of mathematics and medicine, who was involved in astronomy, cartograhy, geography and cosmography. In the beginning Mercator was Frisius’s assistant; later established his own workshop of globes and astronomical instruments. In 1544, during the riots in the Netherlands he was arrested, charged with blasphemy. When he got out of prison, in 1552 he left with his family to Germany. Due to the little demand for maps in central Germany, there was a ten-years gap in his cartographic activities. Together with his sons, he restarted mapmaking in 1563.

The complete edition of Gerardus Mercator’s lifework, a world atlas in five volumes, Atlas Sive Cosmographicae Meditationes de Fabrica Mundi et Fabricati Figura, was for the first time published in 1595 by his son Rumbold and the second edition of it in 1602 by his grandchildren. Then, in 1604, the copper plates and publishing rights of the atlas were sold to Jodocus Hondius, an engraver and publisher from Amsterdam. The atlas which Hondius revised has been published several times since, bearing the title, Mercator-Hondius’s atlas.


Livoniae descrip(tio). - [Ca 1:9 700 000]. - Amstelodami //Amsterdam// : Cornelius Nicolai, 1603. - 1 map: copper engraving; 9 x 12 cm. - (Tabularum Geographicarum Contractarum Libri Quinque / Petrus Bertius ; 428).


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Original in the National Library Cartography Collection

 


Livonia : Beschryvinghe van Lyflandt . – [Ca 1:4 300 000]. – [Amsterdam (Arnheim?) : Joannes Janssonius, ca 1630]. – 1 map : copper engraving ; 18 x 14 cm. – (Atlas minor Gerardi Mercatoris ; 139).


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Original in the National Library Cartography Collection

The map originates from an atlas, Atlas minor, published under the name of the most well-known Flemish cartographer Gerardus Mercator (1512 – 1594) by the Nethelandish cartographers Jodocus Hondius and his successors. Atlas minor was first published in 1607 and several reprints of it followed.

Jodocus Hondius (1563 – 1611), a Netherlandish engraver and publisher, began his activities as a map engraver in 1583 in London. In 1600 he returned to Amsterdam and in 1604 bought the publishing right and copper plates of Mercator’s atlases. Jodocus Hondius died in 1611 and his offspring carried on his activities up to 1637. Jan Jansson, a son-in-law of Jodocus Hondius’ son, also became engaged in the work of the shop and started to operate it after the death of Henricus Hondius.

Jan (Joannes, Joan) Jansson(ius) (1596 – 1664) was among the most eminent publishers of maps of that time, predominantly publishing the works of other cartographers. Jansson’s name remained a part of the business name (Janssonius-Waesbergii) during the time of his successors, Johann Waesberger and Elisee Meyerstraet, up to 1750.


Livonia : Livonia sive Liefland / Petrus K æ rius C æ lavit – [Ca 1:3 400 000]. – [Amstelodami//Amsterdam : I. E. Cloppenburgh, ca 1630]. – 1 map : copper engraving ; 24 x 17 cm. – (Gerardi Mercatoris atlas sive cosmographic æ meditationes de fabrica mundi et figura ;123).


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Original in the National Library Cartography Collection

The map orinates from an atlas, Gerardi Mercatoris atlas sive cosmographic æ meditationes de fabrica mundi et figura , which was published under the name of the most famous Flemish cartographer Gerardus Mercator (1512 – 1594) by Jodocus Hondius and his inheritors.

Jodocus Hondius (1563 – 1611), a Netherlandish engraver and publisher, began his activities as a map engraver in 1583 in London. There he married a sister of another cartographer, Pieter van den Keere. In 1600 Hondius returned to Amsterdam and in 1604 bought the publishing right and copper plates of Mercator’s atlases. Jodocus Hondius died in 1611 and his offspring carried on his activities up to 1637.

Pieter van den Keere (Petrus K æ rius; 1571 – 1646), Jodocus Hondius’ brother-in-law, worked both as an independent engraver as well as at the Hondius’ shop up to 1593 in London and later in Amsterdamis.


Carte de la Livonie ou Lifland . – [Paris : Adam Olearius, 1659]. – 1 map : copper engraving ; 28 x 24 cm. – (Relation du voyage d’Adam Olearius en Moscovie, Tartarie et Perse : Tom I : part 1 ; 74).


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Original in the National Library Cartography Collection

The map originates from a travel book, Relation du voyage d’Adam Olearius en Moscovie, Tartarie et Perse, by a German mathematician Adam Olearius (Oelschläger; 1599 – 1671). Olearius drew the maps, published in his travel books, on the basis of schemes he had drawn during his trip to Russia.


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