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Maps of Europe and Scandinavia 16th - 18th centuries


Europae octava tabula = EUR. VIII. TAB. - Ca. 1:5 900 000 .- Cologne, 1578. - Copper engraving; 41 x 33 cm. - (Mercator, Gerardus : Tabulae Geographicae Cl. Ptolemaei ad mentem).


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SCHONLANDIA XIII NOVA TABULA / Sebastian Münster. - Basel : Heinrich Petri, 1540. - Woodcut; 35 x 26 cm. - (Geographia Universalis, Vetus et Nova / Complectens Claudii Ptolemaei Alexandrini Enarrationis Libros VIII. Succedunt tabulae Ptolemaicae, opera novo paratae modo ; 41)


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SVECIA, DANIA ET NORVEGIA, Regna Europæ Septentrionalia / Iuxta Archetypum Andreæ Buræi de Boo, Secretarÿ Regÿ, et Supremi Regni Sueciæ Architecti. – [1:4 400 000]. – Amsterdam : W. et J. Blaeu, [approx 1635]. – Copper engraving ; 42 x 53 cm. – (Novus Atlas 1 / Willem J. Blaeu).


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This map by Willem Janszoon Blaeu is based on the work of Anders Bure, a Swedish cartographer, and it was first published in Novus Atlas.

Anders Bure (Andreas Bureus or Buraeus; 1571–1646) is an exctemely prominent figure in the Scandinavian cartography. Bure was a mathematician, instruments maker and cartographer by his training. He was the Secretary of Gustav II Adolf, the King of Sweden, as well as the Chief Architect and the highest official on topography of the Swedish kingdom. Helding the last mentioned position he drew up the map of the counties of the northern Sweden; and in 1626, a map of the Swedish kingdom on six separate sheets, Orbis Arctoi Nova et Accurata Delineatio (approximately 20 copies of this map are known to us), later used by the Dutch cartographers and publishers, Jodocus Hondius ja Willem Janszoon Blaeu as the basis for their maps of the northern Europe. There are approximately 150 Estonian place names given on the Bure’s map – about one third more than it is presented on the maps of Livonia by Johann Portantius ja Gerardus Mercator. As far as we know, Bure never worked in Estonia for a longer period of time; still he owned here a mansion in Rannu.


Nova et Accvrata Orbis Arctoi Tabvla Geographica. – [Ca 1:6 300 000]. - 1667. - Copper engraving; 36 x 25 cm. - (Suecia antiqua et hodierna / Erik Dahlberg).


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The founder of Scandinavian cartograhy was a highest official on topography of the Swedish kingdom, Anders Bure (1571–1646) . The publication of his map of the Swedish kingdom on six sheets in 1626 brought along the revival of map drawing in the country, including Livonia. In 1688 it was decided to publish a new map which had to be a step forward from the Bure’s map. Under the circumstances of constant war the map sources were considered confidential material and Erik Dahlberg was the only authorized person to use them in map drawing. However, only a single copy of his atlas was published in 1698. Some of the material for this atlas was later used by a French cartographer, Delisle, in compling his atlas published in 1706. Only in 1735 it was permitted to publish the maps of several counties of Sweden.

Erik Dahlberg (1625–1703) was a Swedish military engineer who also draw the fortification plan for Tallinn in the 17 th century.


Carte des Estats de Suede , de Dannemarq, et de Pologne ; sur la Mer Baltique : Pour servir a l’Intilligence des affaires des Couronnes du Nord ou se trouvent encore les EStats de la Couronne de Pologne, l’Empire d’Allemagne, et les XVII Provinces de Pays Bas ; Avec des Routes de Paris dans tous ces Estats / Par N. de Fer ; H. van Loon sculp. – [Ca 1:4 200 000]. – Paris : Nicolas de Fer, 1700. – 1 map : copper engraving ; 35 x 43 cm. – (L’Atlas curieux ou Le Monde représenté dans les Cartes Generales et Particulieres du Ciel et de la Terre / 1). – The map consists of two parts; the present is an Eastern part.


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The farther of Nicolas de Fer (1646–1720), a French cartographer, was a bookseller and specialised in painting and selling maps. Though de Fer was neither an innovator nor did he made history in cartography, he still took into account the latest results of the French Academy of Sciences’ geodesic surveys on his maps. His strongest side was ‘journalistic’ cartography, needed by his contemporary men for keeping themselves posted up with changes that took place as a result of constant wars. His best known work Les Forces de l’Europe ou description des principales villes, avec leurs fortifications... (1690) was extremely popular and it was reissued several times (including pirate editions by Mortier, Allard and Aa) up to 1746. His maps were richly embellished, but they slightly misrepresent facts.


Gemeine Beschreibung aller Mitnächtigen Länder als Schweden, Gothen, Norwegien, Dennmarck, u . – Basel : Sebastian Henricpetri, 1598. – 1 map : woodcut ; 35 x 30 cm. – (Cosmographey Oder beschreibung Aller Länder herrschafftem und fürnemesten Stetten des gantzen Erdbodens / Sebastian Münster ; 14).


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Sebastian Münster (1489–1552) brought deep changes in the development of cartography. He was born in 1489 in Hessen and studied first in Heidelberg, later in Tübingen. Münster was first a member of the Franciscan order and later joined the religious Reformation as several other humanists of his time. He taught Hebrew, mathematics and cosmography in the University of Heidelberg for a short time before he moved to Basel. In his treatise Erklerung des newen Instruments der Sunnen, published in 1528, he appealed to German students, governors and mayors with a request to send him plans and maps of German regions. His best known works are Typus cosmograph. Universalis that was published in 1532, 1537 and 1555 and Geographia universalis and Cosmographia, which were first printed in 1540. The last mentioned edition was richly illustrated with 24 maps on two pages and numerous maps, town views, etnographic scenes of everyday life, etc. in woodcutting technique set in the text. Münster was the cartographer who initiated the depiction of every part of the world known to him on a separate map. Maps decorated all books that Münster published.


Nova et Accuratissima Tabula Regionum ad Sinum Finnicum / Exactissimo Delineata ac Sumneo Studio recognito ab Henrico de Leth. – Amstelodami //Amsterdam// : Sub Ligno Piscatoris, [after 1742. a]. – Copper engraving ; 47 x 54 cm.


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This map was initially published under the name of Regiones ad Sinum Finnicum Accuratissime Delineatae by the Swedish Royal Topographical Office in Stockholm in 1742.

The map was drawn by Henrico de Leth, an engraver and publisher from Amsterdam. TheVisschers, a family of Dutch engravers and publishers of maps, used the name Piscator. They mostly published the maps by other cartographers.


Partie Orientale Du Golfe De Finnland / per Tobiam Maijerum. – [Ca 1:1000000]. - Nurnberg : Homanniani Heredes, . 1751 [ilmus 1782]. - 1 sheet: copper engraving; 40 x 44 cm. - (Atlas Geographicus Maior / 1 ; 91).


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Russlands oder Moskoviens Nord-West-Theil Waraus die Angränzung mit Schweden und Norwegen Wie auch eines Theils mit Polen verst¿ndlich zuersehen / G. Bodenehr. – [1:12 000 000]. - Augsburg, [after 1716]. - 1 map: copper engraving; 21 x 15 cm. - (Atlas Curieux oder Neuer und Compendieuser Atlas ; 102).


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Svecia, Dania et Norvegia. – [Ca 1:10 000 000]. - Wolfenbüttel : Konrad Braun, 1667. - 1 map: copper engraving; 24 x 20 cm. - (Philippi Cluverii Introductio in Universam Geographiam tam Veterem, quam Novam ; 17).


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Kaart van Sweden = Royaume de Suede / Daniel Delafeuille. Amsterdam : Erven van J. Ratelband, 1735. - 1 map : copper engraving; 26 x 18 cm. - (Geographisch-Toneel, Of uitgezochte Kaarten ; 26).


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Nordeuropa. Gotlandt oder Gothen. Cap. XIX. Beschreibung des Königreichs Dennmarck, sampt den Mitnächtigen Königreichen /Schweden. Gothen /Norwegen/ u. Und was sich darinn nach verlauffen hat. - Basel : Henrichus Petri, 1559. - 1 map : woodcut ; 10 x 14 cm. - (Cosmographey Oder beschreibung Aller Länder herrschafftem und fürnemesten Stetten des gantzen Erdbodens / Sebastian Münster ; 19).


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Der Nordischen Königreiche Süd-Oost Theil Begreiffende Liefland, Ingermanland und Finnland zum Theil : Cum Gratia et Privilegio Sac. Caes. Majestatis / Joh. Strindbeck Jun. fec. et Excudit . – [Ca 1:4 800 000]. – Augspurg //Augsburg//, [enne 1717. a.]. – 1 map : copper engraving ; 23 x 16 cm. – (Atlas Curieux oder Neuer und Compendieuser Atlas).


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The map originates from Atlas Curieux (1704 – 1737), published by Johann Strindbeck (1665 – 1714), a publisher of maps from Augsburg. Later the cartographers Bodenehrs took over Strindbeck’s enterprise, continuing the reprinting of the atlas. They removed Strindbeck’s name from the printing plates and replaced it with Bodenehr.


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