Eesti Rahvusraamatukogu - National Library of Estonia

Sissejuhatus/Introduction | 1856 | 1901 | 1910 | 1919 | 1928 | 1930 | 1940 | 1957 | 1968 | 1980 | 1991 | 2010

1901

Plan der Gouvernementsstadt Reval – plaan turistidele

1880. aastaks oli Venemaa keskvõim kõrvaldanud mitu olulist takistust linna edaspidise arengu ees. 1877. a. kehtestati uus linnaseadus, mis tegi lõpu keskajast pärinevale ja seisuslikul alusel põhinevale linnaomavalitsusele. Pärast sõjakindlustuste likvideerimist oli kitsa ringkonna huve kaitsva linnarae kaotamine teiseks oluliseks ümberkorralduseks Tallinna arenguteel. Peterburi-Tallinna raudtee valmimine 1870. a. aitas kaasa tööstuste rajamisele. Samal ajal toimus peamiselt Eesti maaelanike arvel linlaste arvu märgatav kasv, suurenesid senised eeslinnad ning lisandus uusi. Seltsitegevuse elavnemine tõi kaasa paljude ühiskondlike hoonete rajamise.
Tallinna majanduse hüppelise kasvu eel sai linnamaamõõtjaks Friedrich Johann Eurich, tema elutööks uus Tallinna üldmõõdistus 1879.-1881. aastal. F. J. Eurich koos kahe abilisega mõõdistasid umbes 58 km2 linna territooriumi 162 mõõdistusplanšetil, mis olid kasutusel veel 1930. aastatel. Samal ajal tehti linna üldnivelleerimine (insener A. Mickwitz). Tema põhjalikud ja sisutiheda informatsiooniga mõõdistusplanšetid on hindamatu allikas kõigile neile, kes uurivad Tallinna arengut ja muutusi. Eurichi mõõdistuste alusel koostas Tallinna Linnaameti tehniline büroo linna situatsiooniplaani, millele on esmakordselt kantud ka kõrgusjooned. Sellel plaanil oli igal kinnistul kaks numbrit: krepostinumber ja 1864. aasta kinnisvarahindamise number.
1870ndatest suurenes Tallinna külastavate inimeste arv. Peale populaarse Kadrioru kuurordi valiti järjest sagedamini puhkusekohaks kõrvalisemaid piirkondi nagu Kopli, Kadaka küla, Pirita, Haabersti. Puhkajate, turistide ja ärireisijate arvu suurenemine viis juba 1870ndatel Tallinna oludes uut liiki linnaplaanide – turismikaartide – vajaduseni. Need olid võimalikult ülevaatlikud ja kergesti loetavad, liigne detailirohkus siin ainult segas. Plaani juurde kuulus tänavate ja oluliste objektide loend ning nende kiireks leidmiseks pidi plaan olema jagatud tähtede ja numbritega tähistatud ruutudeks. Tallinna linnaplaanide ja reisijuhtide peamiseks väljaandjaks sai Tallinnas asuv raamatukaubamaja Kluge & Ströhm, plaane trükiti Lindforsi pärijate trükikojas. Hoolimata Tallinna kuulumisest Vene riigi koosseisu olid kaardid kuni I maailmasõja alguseni peamiselt saksakeelsed.
19. saj. lõpul tulid käibele ka kohalike linnavaadetega postkaardid, kus püüti esmajoones kujutada vaatamisväärsusi – mälestusmärke, esindushooneid ja uusehitisi.

 

Plan der Gouvernementsstadt Reval – a map for tourists

In 1880 the central power of Russia removed several important obstacles that had slowed down the town’s further development. In 1877 a new town law had been adopted, putting an end to the municipal government which originated from the medieval period and was based on a person’s position in society. Abolishing the old town council that had protected only the interests of a smaller group of citizens was the second important step in Tallinn’s development after liquidation of the military strongholds. Building the St Petersburg-Tallinn railway in 1870 helped to create new industries. At the same time the number of citizens grew as the number of people living in the rural areas decreased; this led to the growth of the existing suburbs, and also new suburbs emerged. As the people became more active, creating organizations and associations, new public buildings were built.
Before the sudden growth in Tallinn’s economy Friedrich Johann Eurich became the land surveyor. Carrying out new Tallinn’s general surveys in 1879-1881 became his life’s work. F. J. Eurich and his two assistants surveyed around 58 km2 of the town’s territory in 162 survey sheets, that were still being used in the 1930s. At the same time the town’s general levelling was carried out (by the engineer A. Mickwitz). His substantial and thorough survey sheets are a most valuable source for those who study Tallinn’s development and changes. On the basis of Eurich’s surveys, the Tallinn City Administration Technical Bureau drafted the town situation map, where for the first time the relief is also shown. On this map every property has two numbers: krepost-number and property assessment number for the year 1864.
In the 1870s the number of people visiting Tallinn started to grow. As well as Kadriorg spa, remote places like Kopli, Kadaka village, Pirita and Haabersti were also chosen to spend holidays in. Due to the growing number of holidaymakers, tourists and business people in Tallinn the need for a new kind of town map, i.e. tourist maps, emerged in the 1870s. These maps were very general and easy to read, too many details would not have been appreciated. The index of street names and major buildings was added to the map and to help locate them the map was to be divided into a grid with numbers and letters. Kluge & Ströhm – the bookshop situated in Tallinn – became the main publisher for Tallinn town maps and tourist guides; the maps were printed in Lindfors’s printing house. In spite of Tallinn being part of Russia, till the beginning of the First World War the maps were mainly in the German language.
At the end of the 19th century postcards of local views also began to appear. They mainly depicted sightseeing places in the town – memorials, outstanding and new buildings.

 

Tallinna sadam (praegu Vanasadam) oli 1880. aastatel käibe mahu poolest Peterburi ja Odessa järel Vene impeeriumis kolmandal kohal. Ka hilisematel aegadel on suure läbilaskevõimega sadam mõjutanud tõhusalt linna arengut.
Old harbour. The capacity of Tallinn harbour (nowadays Vanasadam or Old Harbour) in 1880 was in third place after St Petersburg and Odessa Harbours in the Russian Empire. Having a harbour of such capacity has greatly influenced the development of the town in later periods too.

 
 

Kadrioru rannapromenaad. 1891. a. rajati ligi poole kilomeetri pikkune ja üle 6 m laiune Kadrioru rannapromenaad. Hiljem rannaäärseid alasid täideti ning promenaad viidi uuele rannajoonele.
Kadriorg seaside promenade. In 1891 the 0.5 km long and more than 6 metres wide Kadriorg seaside promenade was created. Later coastal areas were reinforced and the promenade was moved to the new coastline.

Tallinna Reaalkool. 1881. a. asutatud Tallinna Reaalkooli on lõpetanud rohkesti Eesti teadus-, majandus- ja kultuuriloo seisukohast olulisi isikuid. Koolihoone ning selle lähiümbrusega on seotud riigi ja linna ajaloos olulised sündmused.
Tallinn Secondary Science School. Many important Estonian scientists, economists and culture activists have graduated from the Tallinn Reaalkool, founded in 1881. In the school premises and near its grounds, several important events connected to the Estonian Government and the history of Tallinn have taken place.

 
 

Vaade Kassisaba linnaosale, mis alates 1877. a. laienes jõudsalt lõuna poole.
View of the Kassisaba district, which quickly extended southwards in 1877.

Vaade Toompealt Tõnismäele. Keskel Kaarli kirik, mis pühitseti 1870. a., tornid valmisid 1882. a. 1500 kohaga kiriku ehitamine kujunes rahvusliku liikumise üheks oluliseks sündmuseks.
View from Toompea to Tõnismäe. In the middle: Kaarli Church, inaugurated in 1870, but whose towers were built in 1882. The building of a church that had around 1500 seats became one of the main events of the national movement.

 
 

Vaade Viru väljakule. Vasakul 1873. a. ehitatud tuletõrjehoone. Eemal 19. saj. keskel rajatud kaupmees Rotermanni maja (hiljem Aleksandri Gümnaasium).
View of Viru Square. On the left: the Fire Brigade premises, built in 1873. Further along: Merchant Rotermann’s House (later the Alexander Gümnaasium), created in the middle of the19th century.

Balti jaam.Vanalinnast loodes asuva Balti jaama hoone valmis 1870. a. See oli ligi 400 km pikkusel Balti raudteel ainuke I klassi jaam. II maailmasõjas sai hoone kannatada, kuid tema välisilme muutus pärast 1960.-1967. a. rekonstrueerimistöid.
The Baltic Station. The building of the Baltic Railway premises, situated to the north-west of the Old Town, was finished at the end of 1870. That was the only first rate station on the 400 km long Baltic Railway. Although the building suffered greatly during the Second World War, its appearance changed most notably after the reconstruction works in 1960-1967.

 
 

Vaade Nunne tänavale ja Stenbocki majale 20. saj. algul.
View of Nunne Street and Stenbock House at the beginning of the 20th century.

Puuvillavabrik. 1898. a. ehitatud Balti Puuvilla Ketramise ja Kudumise Vabriku lähistele tekkis peagi väike linnajagu, mida hakati nimetama Sitsiks. Seal olid oma kool, lasteaed, polikliinik, kauplus ning isegi kirik.
Near Baltic Cotton Spinning and Knitting Factory, built in 1898, a new little district was soon created, which was named Sitsi (Chintz) district. It had its own school, kindergarten, polyclinic, shop and even a church.

 

Plan der Gouvernementsstadt Reval. – [ca. 1:16 800]. – Reval : Kluge & Ströhm, 1901 (Ревель : Наследники Линдфорсъ). – 35x43 cm. – Ilmunud ka väljaandes / Published also in: Illustrierter Führer durch Reval und seine Umgebungen.

Väljalõige kaardist: Situationsplan der Stadt Reval / ausgearbeitet im Technische Bureau des Revalschen Stadtamtes ; [A. Mickwitz, F. Eurich]. – [ca. 1:4200]. - Reval : Verlag von Ferd. Wassermann, 1885 (С. Петербург : Картографическое заведенiе А. Ильина, 1886). - 97x124 cm.

Eesti Rahvusraamatukogu - National Library of Estonia